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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2471\margr4157\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn3367\margrsxn4272\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw3370\colsr1066\colno2\colw720 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 KNOWLEDGE OF WRITING: ART}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 23}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2471\margrsxn4157\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri43\sb227\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 and sealings,\super 1\nosupersub  having excellent representations of uni\-\expndtw9 corns and bulls and other objects, have inscriptions \expndtw0 in a script, which belongs to the same order as Proto-\expndtw2 Elamite, Sumerian, Minoan, and Egyptian. Its deci\-\expndtw5 pherment has so far defied the ingenuity of scholars. \expndtw0 The view, commonly held, is that it represents a picto-\expndtw1 graphic system of writing, each sign\super 2\nosupersub  standing for a \expndtw9 particular word or object. A late stage of develop\-\expndtw2 ment is indicated by certain strokes and marks, which \expndtw1 were perhaps vowel signs. It is believed that the direc-: \expndtw3 tion of writing is from right to left, but in some cases it \expndtw2 is \i bowtrophedon, \i0 i.e., from right to left in the first line \expndtw5 and left to right in the second. Nothing can yet be \expndtw1 postulated about its connection with the later Brahrnl. \expndtw8 Very likely the Indus script did not extend to other \expndtw4 parts of India, or survive long.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li18\fi0\ri0\sb166\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw10\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs27 Art}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li25\fi439\ri97\sb144\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The Indus people appear to have made great pro\-\expndtw4 gress in the ceramic art. They were fond of painted \expndtw9 pottery, and some specimens of delicate workman\-\expndtw6 ship and colour have come down to us.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li25\fi436\ri94\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Again, sculptures in the round, of stone and bronze, \expndtw4 display great merit and anatomical faithfulness. The \expndtw8 figure of a dancer standing on the right leg with the \expndtw3 left leg raised in front is beautifully executed, and the \expndtw4 pose is so full of movement that there is hardly any \expndtw1 parallel to it even among the sculptures of the historic \expndtw-18 period*.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li40\fi439\ri0\sb7\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 But by far the most remarkable are the engravings \expndtw6 on the numerous seals and sealings.    The treatment -\expndtw8 of animals,  specially the bull, is  superb  and full of realism.   These figures leave no room for doubt that}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li29\fi353\ri0\sb241\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx497 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex93\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw5 See also L. A. Waddell, \i The Indo-Sumerian Seals  Deciphered\line \i0\charscalex100\expndtw2 (London, 1925).}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li382\fi0\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx497 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw5 A list of no less than 396 signs has been prepared.}\par }